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PERIODICITY

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In the periodic table they are some factors that determine or alter how aan element behave and what not, periodicity is the change of the properties of elements in a regular pattern both down and across the periodic table and this elements are listed as follows below
  • Atomic Radius
  • Ionic Radius
  • Ionization Energy
  • Electron Affinity
  • Elctronegativity
  • Electron and Thermal conductivity

Atomic Radius Atomic radius is the distance measured from the nuecleus of one atom to another when they are in bond to eachh other or divided by two, when such atoms are not in bond to each other such radius or bond formed between them is called Vander waal's radius. Practically all elements have Atomic radius but Helium is known to have the sallest and Francium has the largest, Atmomic radius tends to decreases along the period from left to rigth and increases down the group from top to bottom, atomic radius is measured in Armstrong or Nanometer


Ionic Radiuus Ionic radius is the size of an ion i.e it is the distance between the nuclie of an ion to the outermost shell carrying electrons. A cataion is always smaller than its neutral atom due to the reduction in the number of electrons which leads to its sronger connection or attraction to the nucleus while an anion is always bigger than its its neutral atom due to the increase in the number of electron which brings about more repulsion between the electrons, Ionic radius decreases along the period and increases down the group


Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of element in a gaseous state, the ease or difficulty with which which an electron is reemoved from an atom depends on the effective nuclear change which is the amount of attraction the nuclues exert on the outer electron in general ionization energy tends increases across the period from left to rigth and decreases down the group


Electron Affinity Electron affinity is the energy change that occurs when one mole of electron is added to one mole of gaseous atom or ion in other word it is the measure of the attraction an an stom has for extra electron and it tends to increase along the period from left to rigth and decreases down the group


Electronegativity Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract an electron to itself when forming a chemical bond, this ability depends on the nuclear charge and also the effective nuclear charge depends on screening effect and atomic size. Pauling calculated the electronegativities of different elements by choosing fluorin which is the most electronegative element as standard


Electrical and Thermal conductivity Electrical and thermal conductivity is due to the metallic charactr which increases down the group due to increase in number of shells and decreases across the period


Conclusion All this factors better helped the scientist to place each element in a much more proper and orderly manner . Thanks for taking your time to review my content see you in my next post

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