Essentials basic of the Electrostatics
electrical Structure of the matter The first theories on the structure electrical of the matter proposed by Benjamín Franklin, he supposed that the matter was containing fluid electrical, of such form managing to rub two bodies it divides of the fluid of one raisin to other, with what the first one stays with negative electricity for shortcoming of fluid and the second one with positive electricity due to the excess of fluid this one.
The electrostatic phenomena produced by the rubbing can acquire proportions more spectacular many, that the simple attractions and repulsions, when they accumulate certain quantity of load, can jump a spark across a material can be insulating as the air, so that it jumps a spark between two points separated by the air, the potential differences must be of thousands of volts for centimeter.
At present with the time to the atomic theory be established and accepted, the electrostatic phenomenon is interpreted in a different and concise way; the matter is formed by atoms, compounds, elementary particles with electrical characteristics. In and center of the atom there are the protons that are particles with positive electricity and his side turn electrons, which are particles with negative load; when the number of electrons is equal to that of protons, the atom is electrically neutral.
On the other hand we have a substance with all his neutral atoms it does not show externally any electrical property, if two materials rub, one of them starts some electrons of the superficial atoms of other, the material that gains electrons they acquire negative electricity and the one that them loses print. The physical magnitude that quantifies these electrostatic phenomena they are named an electrical load, where the elementary load is that of the electron, since that of the proton has the same value and opposite sign and all bodies loaded will have a load of the electron.
The secondhand units of a habitual way, to measure the load of the body are multiple many major than the load of the electron; in the international system of units the culombios is used (C), whose load is equivalent 6.3x10 times the load of the electron.
It is important to know the following concepts:
electrostatic Field: Region in which a loaded, stationary particle, it is submitted to a force due to the distribution of electrostatic load.Dictionary of Electronics, Computer science And Nuclear energy Written by Mariano Mataix Lorda, Miguel Mataix Hidalgo paginates 205.
electrostatic Approach: Concentration of an electronic bundle.
electrostatic Generator: Generator which functioning is based on the phenomena of electrostatic influence.
electrostatic Influence: Phenomenon that causes separation of the charges of a low body influence of an electrical field.
Law of coulomb and fields electrical The loaded bodies show true interaction between them, two bodies with different charges are attracted and with equal charges they are repelled, it can be proved that two bodies are attracted more all the major charges are his and also when closer they find one of other. This fact remains reflected in the law established by Charles Coulomb, which use a scales of torsion as that used Cavendish, to measure the constant of universal gravitation.
The expression of the law of Coulomb, it has a form similar to the universal gravitation, nevertheless, in this case it is the electrical load and not the mass the person in charge of the phenomenon. The attractive or repulsive force as the respective signs of the charges, it is proportional to the multiple one of the charges, of two bodies and inversely proportionally to the square of the distance between them, also we have the constant of proportionality it depends on the constant dieléctrica on the way in which the charges are.
In some case is important to analyze the electrostatic phenomena, from the concept of electrical field, expression with which there is designated the zone of the space, in which electrical forces demonstrate on a loaded body, where the intensity of the electrical field in a point is the force, which the above mentioned field exercises on the unit of electrical load placed in the above mentioned point. If we know the value of the electrical field, And in a point and the force F, that the field will exercise on a load q, it will be the product: F=Exq.
Potential electrostatic The potential energy is defined as the energy, which has the bodies submitted to a force, which depends on his position in the space, there turns out to be like that the potential gravitational energy and the elastic energy, on a loaded body placed in an electrical field, they operate a force that the body is free to move, it will displace it and a work will communicate it. Consequently the potential electrical energy, which possesses a body depends on his position, which will depend his position in the field.
Is necessary to take in account the following thing, the electrical potential of a point of the field is the energy, in the above mentioned point it would have the unit of positive load, it is considered that the force of the field, the load has no energy, the electrical potential is equivalent to the necessary work, to take the load from the exterior of the field, up to the considered point. The potential unit electrical in the international system is the volt the (V)th equivalent to the potential of a such point that was needed to realize a work 1 J, to move up to him, from the outside of the field it is a load 1C, the electrical potential is a magnitude to climb and it can be positive or negative, the work carried out to move the unit of positive load between two points equivalently to the potential difference between they.
Culminate with the following thing, there are multiple the phenomena that make electrical charges appear for rubbing of two electrically neutral bodies, since it is an exclusively superficial process, since it takes control only of the atoms of the external part of the objects, which we put in contacts. Whenever it exists this interaction produces to itself the creation of load put up in two bodies, it can happen that the charges it has a very small value, which is distributed by the whole body as a driver, the conditions of the experience can be much changed by common materials.
All the phenomena electrostatic it has a zone around him of a loaded body, in which they appear forces electrical on other loaded bodies, like his electrical field, since it will impel any positive load towards potential minor zones.
Electrostatics - Theory and exercises solved by Navarrese Dew Lacoba - 2014.
Dictionary of Electronics, Computer science And Nuclear energy - Page 205 for Mariano Mataix Lorda, Miguel Mataix Hidalgo - 1999.
Electrical engineering - Page 265 for Peter Bastian - 2001.