Air Pollution - What to Know About Air Pollution Part 1
Air pollution is one of the greatest plagues of our time, as it affects not only climate change but also public and personal health due to increased diseases and mortality rates. There are many pollutants that are the main cause of human diseases. Among them, particles (PM) of varying diameter but very small particles enter through the respiratory tract, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, dysfunction of the central nervous system and cancer.
Although ozone is in the stratosphereIt has a protective effect on UV rays, but it is harmful in high concentrations on earth and can also affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In addition, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are all considered harmful air pollutants.
Inhalation of large amounts of carbon monoxide can cause direct poisoning. When heavy metals such as lead are absorbed by the human body, it can cause direct or chronic poisoning, depending on the degree of exposure.
Diseases caused by the above substances mainly include respiratory problems, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis, as well as lung cancer, cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunction and skin diseases. Last but not least, climate change due to environmental pollution affects the geographical spread of many infectious diseases as well as natural disasters.
The only way to solve this problem is through public awareness and multidisciplinary approach for scientific experts; Countries and international organizations must respond to the emergence of this threat and propose sustainable solutions.
The interaction between humans and their physical environment has been extensively studied because various human activities affect the environment. The environment is the link between living things (organisms and microorganisms) and non-living things (hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere).
Pollution is defined as the entry of substances harmful to humans and other organisms into the environment. Pollutants are harmful solids, liquids or gases, and their concentration is higher than normal, which will reduce our environmental quality. Human activities have harmful effects on the environment by polluting the water we drink, the air we breathe and the soil where plants grow.
Although the industrial revolution has achieved great success in technology, society and the provision of various services, it has also introduced a large number of air pollutants harmful to human health. There is no doubt that global environmental pollution is regarded as a multifaceted international public health problem. Social, economic, legislative issues and living habits are all related to this major issue.
Obviously, urbanization and industrialization all over the world are reaching an unprecedented and astonishing degree in the world of our time. Man-made air pollution is one of the world’s greatest threats to global health, causing nearly 9 million deaths every year. There is no doubt that all of the above are closely related to climate change. Once a danger occurs, the consequences for humans may be terrible .
The effects of climate change and global warming have severely affected different ecosystems, leading to food safety issues, melting snow and icebergs, animal extinction, and plant damage .
Air pollution has different effects on health. Even on days with low air pollution, the health of susceptible and allergic people will be affected. Short-term exposure to air pollution is closely related to COPD, coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory diseases, and high hospitalization rates (measured by pathology).
The long-term effects associated with air pollution are chronic asthma, lung failure, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular death. According to a Swedish cohort study, diabetes appears to be caused by long-term exposure to air pollution . In addition, air pollution in the early stages of human life seems to have a variety of harmful health consequences, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, mental diseases and perinatal diseases leading to infant deaths or adult chronic diseases .
National reports indicate increased risk of illness and deathplus . These studies have been carried out in many places around the world and have shown an association between daily particulate matter (PM) concentration and daily mortality. Climate change and global warming may exacerbate this situation. In addition, due to specific reasons, the hospitalization rate (morbidity index) of the elderly and susceptible population has increased. Microparticles and ultrafine particles seem to be associated with more serious diseases because they can penetrate deeper parts of the airway and reach the blood easily.